An overview of OpenSBI

Thanks to BeagleBoard.org, we’ve recently received a pre-production beta version of the BeagleV StarLight development board. It’s an affordable Linux platform that’s truly open source with it’s software, hardware design and RISC-V instruction set architecture all made available under free and open licenses. When we booted the board for the first time we noticed some …

An overview of PSCI

If you boot a 64-bit kernel on an ARMv8-A platform, you’ll probably notice some output relating to PSCI. In this post, we’re going to explore what this is and why it’s there. The Power State Coordination Interface (PSCI) is an ARM standard that describes a software interface for power management between an operating system (not …

5 Serial Automation Gotchas

Automated tests that make use of interactive consoles are commonplace. Whether it’s a Linux console over a serial port or a proprietary CLI over a network socket – they require little in terms of hardware yet give access to lots of functionality. However writing a reliable automated test can be more challenging and time consuming …

Flattened uImage Tree (FIT) Images

You’re probably familiar with the steps required to boot Linux from U-Boot: you first load several binaries into memory, perhaps a device tree, a kernel, maybe even an initrd. You then invoke a command such as bootm or booti with arguments providing memory addresses for the binaries you’ve just loaded. However there is a much …

Yocto Security Hardening: CVEs

The volume and complexity of the software running in embedded devices is not only astonishing but ever increasing – yet each additional line of code has the potential to introduce a security vulnerability. An attacker may only need to exploit one single vulnerability for a bad outcome to occur. Therefore the obvious way to reduce …

Booting Linux from Linux with kexec

The Linux kernel feature known as ‘kexec‘ allows you to boot from the currently running kernel into a new kernel – effectively turning a Linux distribution into a feature-rich bootloader. This shouldn’t be confused with virtualisation technologies that allow you to run Linux as a guest. This capability has been around since 2005 (2.6.13) and …